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A
abduction: movement away from a position near or parallel to the median axis of the body.

accommodation reflex: adaptation of the visual apparatus of the eye accomplished for achieving near vision consisting of an increase in the curvature of the lens, pupillary constriction and convergence of the eyes.

adduction: movement towards of past the median axis of the body (bring together).

afferent pupillary defect: seen with unilateral optic nerve lesions. During the swinging flashlight test when the light is directed in the unaffected eye both pupils.

articulation: enunciation.

atrophy: wasting of a muscle.

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B
Babinski: (Joseph, 1857-1932). French neurologist of Polish origin.

binocular: both eyes.

C
chorea: irregular, unpredictable, brief, jerky movement.

clonus: series of alternating contractions and relaxations of a muscle.

conductive deafness: due to interference with transmission of sound to the cochlea usually the result of obstruction of the external auditory canal or disease of the middle ear.

cone: one of the types of visual receptors of the retina that are especially important in visual acuity and color vision.

conjunctiva: mucous membrane that lines the inners surface of the eyelids and continues over the anterior aspect of the eyeball.

convergence: both eyes move medially (i.e. toward the nose)

cornea: transparent part of the coat of the eyeball that covers the iris and the pupil.


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D
distal:
located away from the point of attachment or origin or central part (e.g. torso).

dorsal: related to the back or posterior aspect.

E
eversion: turn outward.

extinction: failure to perceive on one side in response to double simultaneous stimulation (whereas a single stimulus is perceived on that side).

extrapyramidal: the motor system related to the basal ganglia.

F
fasciculation: single, spontaneous, involuntary discharge of an individual motor unit.

fixation: fixation is achieved when the image of an object falls directly on the fovea.

fovea: A depression in the center of the macula of the retina where only cones are present and blood vessels are lacking.

fundoscopy: examination of the fundus of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.

fundus: the interior of the eyeball.


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G
graphesthesia: ability to identify letters or numbers written on the skin (usually of the palm).

guttural: harsh, throaty sound produced in the throat.

H
hemifacial spasm: brief twitches that may increase periodically to culminate in more sustained tonic contractions, involving half the face, especially about the eye.

hypertrophy: excessive development of a muscle.

I - J
inversion: turn inward.

K - L
labial: related to the lips.

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M
macula: a small oval area (3x5 mm) on the inner surface of the retina slightly below the level of the optic disc at a point corresponding to the posterior pole of the eyeball.

mid-brain: rostral (most cephalad) portion of the brainstem.

monocular: one eye only.

motor unit: axon, along with hits anterior horn cell and all the muscle fibers with which it is connected.

myoclonus: rapid, brief, shock-like muscle jerks.

myokymia: abnormal irregular muscle twitching.

N
nasolabial fold: the fold located laterally between the cheek and the lips.

nystagmus: rapid involuntary oscillation of the eyes.

O
olfactory:cranial nerve I which subserves special sense of smell or olfaction

ophthalmoscope: an instrument for use in examination of the interior of the eye.

orofacial dyskinesia: abnormal involuntary movements involving the orofacial region (e.g. licking, chewing).

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P - Q
palatal: related to the palate.

palmar: related to the palm surface of the hand.

palpebral fissure: the space between the margins of the eyelids.

phonation: the production of vocal sounds, especially speech.

plantar response: the response to stroking the sole of the foot. A flexor response (flexion of the large toe) is normal. An extensor response (extension or an up-going large toe) is abnormal and indicates an upper motor neuron lesion.

pretectal: transitional zone of the brainstem between the midbrain and diencephalons.

proximal: located near the point of attachment or origin or central part (e.g. torso).

ptosis: drooping of the upper eyelid.

pursuit: following movements of the eyes react normally. When the light is returned to the affected eye, both pupils will dilate.

R
refractive: pertaining to refraction, the deflection of a ray of light when it passes from one median into another. The act of determining the nature and degree of refractive errors in the eye and correction of these errors by lenses or a pinhole.

retropulsion: involuntary backward walking.

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S
saccades/saccadic: jerky rapid movements of the eyes.

sclera: dense fibrous opaque white outer coat enclosing the eyeball except that part covered by the cornea.

sensori-neural deafness: also known as nerve deafness due to disease of cochlea, cochlea nerve or its nuclei or the central pathways concerned with hearing.

spasm: abnormal involuntary contraction of muscle fibers.

stereognosis: ability to identify an object by shape.

supine: lying on the back.

synkinesis: involuntary movement accompanying a voluntary one.

T - U
tic: repetitive, irregular stereotypic movements (or vocalizations).

tremor: rhythmic, sinusoidal, oscillatory movement of a body part.

V - Z
vestibular function: relating to the vestibule of the inner ear.
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