Olfactory
Optic
visual acuity
visual fields
fundoscopy
pupillary light reflex
Oculomotor
Trochlear
Trigeminal
Abducens
Facial
Vestibulocochlear
Glossopharyngeal
Vagus
Accessory
Hypoglossal

II Optic Nerve - Visual Acuity
Examination Technique:

  • each eye is tested separately.

  • test best corrected vision using eyeglasses.

  • any patient with uncorrected visual acuity of less than 20/20 should be examined with a pinhole. Improvement of vision through a pinhole indicates that the error is refractive.

  • test distant vision using a Snellen chart at 10 or 20 feet.

  • or test near vision using a near vision card at 14 inches.

  • the patient is instructed to read progressively smaller lines of letters until they can go no further.


Normal Response:

  • most young healthy individuals have vision of 20/20, i.e. at 20 feet, the patient reads a line that a normal eye sees at 20 feet.

  • record for each eye separately, right eye = OD, left eye = OS.

Abnormal Response: (Examples)

20/30 – 2: The patient missed two letters of the 20/30 line.

20/200: Legally blind. At 20 feet the patient reads a line that a normal eye could see at 200 feet.

CF: If a patient is unable to read the top line, have him count fingers at maximal distance.

HM: If a patient cannot count fingers, ask them to determine direction of hand motion.

LP: If a patient cannot perceive hand motion, see if they can perceive a light.

NLP: No light perception